The science of the lung and its diseases as a subdivision of internal medicine roots from the Greek word „pneumōn“ (πνεύμων-lung). The specific field of pneumology is concerned with the prophylaxis, detection and treatment of various diseases of the lung, respiratory tract, lung and costal pleura as well as the respiratory muscles. Often diseases express themselves in the form of shortness of breath or respiratory distress, which can have a variety of causes. Common diseases are acute bronchitis, COPD, bronchial asthma, pneumonia and pulmonary fibrosis.
Non-invasive examinations (spirometry, bodyplethysmography, spiroergometrie, x-ray and CT, sleep apnea diagnostics) or invasive examinations (bronchoskopie, thoracoscopy) can diagnose and treat these diseases. An ever increasing number of drugs and interventional procedures is available already today for the treatment of various lung diseases.